St Peter's Basilica, Rome

The Basilica of St. Peter

The Basilica of St. Peter is in the heart of the Vatican City, an independent sovereign state on the right bank of the Tiber river, in the centre of Rome

The Vatican State is the smallest State in the world, and what remains of temporal dominions of the Church, which were annexed to Italy at the end of 1800's with the unification of the country The Basilica as we see it today, with its ribbed dome stands impressively in its square which seems to welcome all the pilgrims of the world in the embrace of the Mother Church. It was designed by the most famous architects and geniuses of the Renaissance and Baroque time

 The Basilica stands on the foundations of the Constantinian basilica, that stood for over a thousand years on a sacred area of Pagan-Christians mausoleums. St. Peter's Square with its famous colonnade which represents one of the most brilliant ideas of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is 320 meters wide with a central ellipsis of 240 meters and is surrounded by 4 rows of 284 columns and 88 pilasters. The balustrade above the columns is decorated with 140 statues of Saints. Below, a huge stairway of three flights flanked by the statues of Saint Peter and Saint Paul. In the centre of the square, there are two great fountains and an obelisk.

vatican san pietro

The façade of the Basilica -14.69 mt. wide and 47.3 mt. high - is made of travertine of Tivoli. It features a unique structure of Corinthian columns and frames a broad central portico with two arcades on either side (the one on the left leads to the City of the Vatican); above, nine balconies with windows (the central one is the loggia of the blessings) and a canonical attic surmounted by the balustrade that supports thirteen statues. Five bronze doors lead inside. In the middle of the church dominate the magnificent "dome" by Michelangelo and the smaller domes of the Gregorian and Clementine chapels. Inside, the Basilica is 186 m long (218.7 with the portico, or front hall), the main nave is 46 m in height and the height of the dome is 119 m. Under the dome is the papal altar, with the famous canopy by Bernini rising over it. The sumptuousness of the interior is breathtaking: 45 altars, 11 chapels, around 10 thousand square metres of mosaics and many other masterpieces, such as the “Pietà” by Michelangelo. The tombs of several popes can be found under St. Peters Church. Constantine, the first Christian Emperor, wanted the building of the Basilica in 315 AD exactly on the site where the tomb of Christ's first Apostle was worshipped.

Originally the Vatican area was an unhealthy and uninhabited place. Its condition improved at the beginning of the 1st century when the area closest to the Tiber River was reclaimed. Following works saw the creation of gardens, large parks, villas and outstanding buildings, such as Naumachia Vaticana, probably used for water games and the Mausoleum of Hadrian, today is known as Castel Sant'Angelo and the private circus of Caligula. Along via Cornelia there were tombs, altars and sepulchres, in total respect of the Roman law that prescribed for all burial places to be located outside of residential areas. Built by Emperor Caligula between 37 and 40 AD, the building was located on the left side of the current basilica, in the valley leading down to the river. The circus was the stage for the first persecution of the Christians by Nero. The position of the circus has been known since at least the 1600's, also due to the fact that the obelisk rising in the centre of the circus stood in its original place until 1586, when it was moved to the centre of St. Peter's square upon orders of Sixtus V. The event is reported by Domenico Fontana in his book, Della Trasportatione dell’Obelisco Vaticano et delle Fabriche di Nostro Signore Papa Sisto V, Roma 1590 (“about the transportation of the Vatican Obelisk and the works undertaken by His Holiness Sixtus V"). The operation costed 40,000 scudi, 800 workers, 140 horses and 40 hoists; Sixtus V emanated an order with the death penalty for anyone who obstructed works, or even made noise: the lifting operations took place in absolute silence and had to be accompanied only by the sound of a trumpet. It is said that Fontana had his horse ready for the escape in case the obelisk had fallen during the operation. Fontana succeeded in his work also thanks to one of the workers, the sailor called Bresca, who seeing that the supporting ropes were about to break, broke the silence by shouting out "acqua alle funi!" (water to the ropes!). The circus was already out of use one hundred and fifty years after its construction, at the time of Emperor Caracalla, when a large circular mausoleum was built above the circus not too far from the obelisk and later dedicated to St. Andrew.

Naumachia Neronis

The radical transformation of the entire Vatican area took place in the 4thcentury when Christianity rapidly took over pagan worship. After the abdication of Diocletian, responsible for the last great persecutions, the wars of succession to conquer the power ended with the nomination in 307 AD of Emperor Constantine. Son of one of Diocletian’s generals, Constantine was recognised as Emperor in 312, after the defeat at Saxa Rubra, near Rome, of his rival Maxentius, on October 28th, who drowned in the Tiber river. The following year, the Emperor established the liberalisation of the religion with the Edict of Milan, ensuring that Christianity was no longer obstructed and could be worshipped freely. From then on, political and religious powers were no longer unified in the person of the Emperor, to the point where in 330 AD the capital was transferred to the East, leading to the founding of a city named after himself on the Bosphorus: Constantinople. He made Rome the religious centre of the Empire and for this purpose started an intense building program that had to give to the rising Church its worthy places of worship. The first building erected was the Basilica, in order to assure an adequate celebration of the prince of the apostles. The church of San Giovanni in Laterano followed, then the Papal residence and the Imperial Palace; followed by Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, San Pietro and Marcellino, San Sebastiano, San Lorenzo outside the walls and finally the church of Sant'Agnese. St. Peter's Basilica grew also thanks to works and donations made by princes and popes; in 800 Charles the Great was crowned by the Pope Leo III, after him was Lotario, Ludovico II° and Federico III°.

obelisco vaticano

At the beginning of the Early Middle Ages, the city of Rome went under a progressive decline, no longer the heart of a great Empire but the target for sacking by the Barbarians, by the Goths of Alarico (410) and by Vitige(537-538), by the Vandals of Genserico (445), who cut the aqueducts to bend the city and finally by Totila (545-546). One thousand years after its foundation, St. Peter's was going to ruin and Niccolò V° decided to undertook extensive works of restoration upon suggestion of Leon Battista Alberti and the project of Bernardo Rossellino. During the Renaissance in Italy and in Europe a new cultural and political climate was breathed, the rebuilding of Rome began (the urban situation of the period and the transformations) on the initiative of a new generation of popes who saw the building works as a means for reaching them asses that, Niccolò V°, the humanist pope, thought needed to be fascinated by grand works. And so began the magnificent plan of Niccolò V, the restoration of ancient monuments that could be used as the infrastructure of the papal city: the Aurelian walls, the bridges, the Mausoleum of Hadrian transformed into a castle, several aqueducts, the reconstruction or repair of the forty basilicas making up the Holy Stations of pilgrimage and finally the creation of a small city on the Vatican hill, seen as a holy city different from the profane city, on the other side of the Tiber and connected only via the bridge of Castel S.Angelo. Niccolò V only managed to complete a small part of his project. The new basilica was constructed by Giulio II Della Rovere. Works began with the demolition of a large part of the old church, following the project of Bramante, with the intention of building a Greek cross plan edifice inspired by the Pantheon. The central pillars of the design by Bramante were created, with the large support arches of the dome, and the spaces created adjacent to the central part, then works stopped for 20 years. In 1527 there was the terrible sacking of Rome by the Lanzichenecchi. The direction of works was then continued - with strange and recurring competition between Greek cross plan and Latin cross plan - by Frà Giocondo, Raffaello, Giuliano da Sangallo, Baldassarre Peruzzi, Antonio da Sangallo il Giovane and finally Michelangelo, who re-applied the design of Bramante, restructuring the smaller areas surrounding the central part and beginning the construction of the dome, which was only completed under Sixtus V in 1593 by Giacomo Della Porta and Domenico Fontana. Under the pontificate of Paul V the decision was made to restore the basilica with the definite return to the Latin cross plan. Architect Carlo Maderno added three chapels to each side of the building and conducted the naves up to the current façade (begun in 1607 terminated in 1614 and restored on the occasion of the Jubilee 2000). Maderno’s works was criticised by many because hiding from view the tambour, the rising effect of the dome is dampened. The consecration of the new basilica was celebrated by Urban VIII in November 1626. Upon conclusion of this grand work, the construction of the city was stopped, but the miraculous balance between ancient ruins and the Baroque scenes of papal Rome is so great that it has fascinated and enraptured great travellers such as Byron, Goethe, Stendhal...


 

Privacy statement and cookies

Privacy statement and cookies

PRIVACY DISCLAIMER

In compliance with the obligations deriving from national legislation (Legislative Decree 30 June 2003 No. 196, Code for the protection of personal data) and Community, (European Regulation for the protection of personal data No. 679/2016, GDPR) and subsequent changes, this site respects and protects the privacy of visitors and users, putting in place every effort possible and proportionate to not infringe the rights of users.

This privacy policy applies only to the online activities of this site and is valid for visitors / users of the site. It does not apply to information collected through channels other than this website. The purpose of the privacy statement is to provide maximum transparency regarding the information that the site collects and how it is used.

Legal basis of the processing

This site processes data based on consent. With the use or consultation of this site visitors and users explicitly approve this privacy statement and consent to the processing of their personal data in relation to the methods and purposes described below, including any disclosure to third parties if necessary for the provision of a service.
The provision of data and therefore the consent to the collection and processing of data is optional, the User can deny consent, and may revoke at any time a consent already provided (through the link Contacts). However, denying consent may make it impossible to provide certain services and the browsing experience on the site may be compromised.

Starting from 25 May 2018 (date of entry into force of the GDPR), this site will process some of the data based on the legitimate interests of the data controller.

 

Data collected and purposes

Like all websites, this site also makes use of log files in which information collected in an automated manner is kept during user visits. The information collected could be the following:

- internet protocol (IP) address;
- type of browser and device parameters used to connect to the site;
- name of the Internet service provider (ISP);
- date and time of visit;
- web page of origin of the visitor (referral) and exit;
- possibly the number of clicks.

The above information is processed in an automated form and collected in an exclusively aggregated form in order to verify the correct functioning of the site, and for security reasons (from 25 May 2018 such information will be treated according to the legitimate interests of the owner).
For security purposes (spam filters, firewalls, virus detection), the automatically recorded data may possibly also include personal data such as IP address, which could be used, in accordance with applicable laws, in order to block attempts at damage to the site itself or to cause damage to other users, or in any case harmful activities or constituting a crime. Such data are never used for the identification or profiling of the user, but only for the purposes of protection of the site and its users (from 25 May 2018 such information will be treated according to the legitimate interests of the owner).

If the site allows the inclusion of comments, or in the case of specific services requested by the user, the site automatically detects and records some identification data of the user, name, surname, address, email address. These data are voluntarily provided by the user at the time of requesting service delivery. By inserting a comment or other information, the user expressly accepts the privacy policy, and in particular agrees that the contents included are freely disseminated to third parties.
The data received will be used exclusively for the provision of the services requested and for further years 10.
The information that users of the site deem to make public through the services and tools made available to them, are provided by the user knowingly and voluntarily, exempting this site from any liability regarding any violation of laws. It is up to the user to verify that they have permission to enter personal data of third parties or contents protected by national and international standards.

The data collected by the site during its operation are used exclusively for the purposes indicated above and kept for the time strictly necessary to carry out the activities specified. In any case, the data collected from the site will never be provided to third parties, for any reason, unless it is a legitimate request by the judicial authority and only in the cases provided by law.

The data used for security purposes (block attempts to damage the site) are kept for 7 days.

Place of treatment

The data collected by the site are processed at the headquarters of the Data Controller, and at the Web Hosting datacenter. Web hosting (Utixo Hosting Services - Via Rossignoli, 14 26013 Crema CR Italy), which is responsible for processing data, processing data on behalf of the holder, is located in the European Economic Area and acts in accordance with European standards.

 

Cookie

As is customary on all websites, this site also uses cookies, small text files that allow you to store information on visitor preferences, to improve the functionality of the site, to simplify navigation by automating the procedures (eg. Login, site language) and for the analysis of the use of the site.

Session cookies are essential in order to distinguish between connected users, and are useful to avoid that a required feature can be provided to the wrong user, as well as for security purposes to prevent cyber attacks on the site. Session cookies do not contain personal data and last only for the current session, ie until the browser is closed. No consent is required for them.
The functionality cookies used by the site are strictly necessary for the use of the site, in particular they are linked to an express request for functionality by the user (such as Login), for which no consent is required.

By using the site, the visitor expressly consents to the use of cookies.

 

Disabling cookies

Cookies are connected to the browser used and CAN BE DISABLED DIRECTLY FROM THE BROWSER, thus refusing / withdrawing consent to the use of cookies. It should be noted that disabling cookies may prevent the correct use of some features of the site itself.
Instructions for disabling cookies can be found on the following web pages:

Mozilla Firefox - Microsoft Internet Explorer - Microsoft EdgeGoogle Chrome - Opera - Apple Safari 

 

Third-party cookies

This site also acts as an intermediary for third-party cookies, used to provide additional services and features to visitors and to improve the use of the site, such as buttons for social media, or video. This site has no control over the cookies of third parties, entirely managed by third parties. As a consequence, the information on the use of these cookies and their purposes, as well as on how to disable them, are provided directly by the third parties on the pages indicated below.

In particular, this site uses cookies of the following third parties:

- Google Analytics: a Google analysis tool that through the use of cookies (performance cookies), collects anonymous browsing data (IP truncated to the last octet) and exclusively aggregates for the purpose of examining the use of the site by users, compiling reports on activities on the site and providing other information, including the number of visitors and pages visited. Google may also transfer this information to third parties where required to do so by law or where such third parties process the information on Google's behalf. Google will not associate the IP address with any other data held by Google. Data transmitted to Google are stored on Google's servers in the United States.
On the basis of a specific agreement with Google, which is designated as the data controller, the latter undertakes to process the data according to the requests of the Data Controller (see at the end of the information), given through the software settings. Based on these settings, the advertising and data sharing options are disabled.

Further information on Google Analytics cookies can be found on the Google Analytics Cookie Usage on Websites.

The user can selectively disable the collection of data by Google Analytics by installing the appropriate component provided by Google on their browser (opt out).

 

- Youtube: a platform owned by Google, for sharing videos, which uses cookies to collect information from users and navigation devices. The videos on the site do not convey cookies when the page is accessed, since the "advanced privacy (no cookie)" option has been set, according to which YouTube does not store visitor information unless they voluntarily reproduce the video.

cookie: test_cookie .doubleclick.net is not a permanent cookie, but is used to check if the user's browser supports cookies.

For more information on the use of data and their processing by Google, it is recommended to view the information on the page provided by Google, and on the page on how to use the data by Google when using sites or apps of partners.

Social Network Plugin

This site also incorporates plugins and / or buttons for social networks, in order to allow easy sharing of content on your favorite social networks. These plugins are programmed so as not to set any cookies when accessing the page, to safeguard the privacy of users. Possibly cookies are set, if so provided by social networks, only when the user makes effective and voluntary use of the plugin. Please note that if the user browses being logged into the social network then he has already consented to the use of cookies conveyed through this site at the time of registration to the social network.
The collection and use of the information obtained by means of the plugin are governed by the respective privacy policies of the social networks, to which reference is made.

- Facebook - (link informativa cookie)
- Twitter - (link informativa cookie)
- LinkedIn - (link informativa cookie)
- Google+ - (link informativa cookie). 

 

Transfer of data to non-EU countries

This site may share some of the data collected with services located outside the European Union area. In particular with Google, Facebook and Microsoft (LinkedIn) through social plugins and the Google Analytics service. The transfer is authorized on the basis of specific decisions of the European Union and the Guarantor for the protection of personal data, in particular Decision 1250/2016 (Privacy Shield - here the information page of the Italian Data Protection Authority), for which no further consent is required. The companies mentioned above guarantee their adherence to the Privacy Shield.

 

Security measures

This site processes the data of users in a lawful and correct manner, adopting the appropriate security measures to prevent unauthorized access, disclosure, modification or unauthorized destruction of data. Processing is carried out using IT and / or telematic tools, with organizational methods and with logic strictly related to the purposes indicated. In addition to the owner, in some cases, may have access to the data categories of employees involved in the organization of the site (administrative, commercial, marketing, legal, system administrators) or external subjects (as suppliers of third-party technical services, postal couriers, hosting providers, IT companies, communication agencies).

 

User rights

Pursuant to European Regulation 679/2016 (GDPR) and national legislation, the User can, in accordance with the procedures and within the limits established by current legislation, exercise the following rights:

- request confirmation of the existence of personal data concerning him / her (right of access);
- know its origin;
- receive intelligible communication;
- have information about the logic, methods and purposes of the processing;
- request the updating, correction, integration, cancellation, transformation into anonymous form, blocking of data processed in violation of the law, including those no longer necessary for the pursuit of the purposes for which they were collected;
- in cases of consent-based processing, receive only the cost of any support, its data provided to the holder, in a structured and readable form by a data processor and in a format commonly used by an electronic device;
- the right to lodge a complaint with the Supervisory Authority (Privacy Guarantor - link to the Guarantor page);
- as well as, more generally, exercise all the rights that are recognized by the current provisions of the law.

Requests should be addressed to the Data Controller.

In the event that the data are processed on the basis of legitimate interests, the rights of data subjects are guaranteed (with the exception of the right to portability that is not provided for by the regulations), in particular the right to oppose the treatment that can be exercised by sending a request to the data controller.

 

Data controller

The data controller in accordance with the laws in force is Art & Travel srl, Via Madonna dei Monti 49, 00184 Rome - VAT number 06925101005, which can be contacted via the CONTACTS section.

Treatment Manager

Web hosting (Utixo Hosting Services - Via Rossignoli, 14 26013 Crema CR Italy), is appointed responsible for processing, processing data on behalf of the owner. Utixo Hosting Services is located in the European Economic Area and acts in accordance with European standards (Utixo Hosting Services privacy policy).
Google is appointed data controller, processing data on behalf of the owner (Google Analytics).

 

Argiletumtour uses a management database resident on Microsoft Sharepoint
Personal Data: address, country, email address, full name, phone number, various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service and ZIP/Postal code
Location of the data: EU

Handling payments: Unicredit
Personal Data: various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service

Contacting the User
Contact form
Personal Data: email address, first name, last name, various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service and ZIP/Postal code

 

Data retention period

The retention of personal data provided will take place throughout the duration of the service provided and for further years 10

Updates

This privacy policy is updated as of 24 May 2018

Click on the following link to open the Argiletum Tour Rome App with your iPhone or Android smartphone

Argiletum Tour PWA app
Argiletum Tour Operator by Art&Travel srl

Argiletum Tour Operator by Art&Travel srl - Via Madonna dei Monti 49, 00184 Rome (Metro Cavour, Colosseo )
Phone +39 06 47825706 +39 06 47882485 - P. IVA 06925101005

WhatsApp

WhatsApp

Art&Travel srl - Copyright © 2002-2018